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Top / Planet2022



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astro-phߥʡ轵12:00鳫ŤƤޤϢChanoul Seo ůϯ һΡ

Schedule & History

2021ǯ 2020ǯ 2019ǯ 2018ǯ 2017ǯ 2016ǯ 2015ǯ 2014ǯ

1 4/14 15:00-All membersSelf-introductionƣ
2 4/28 15:00-Masahiro Ikoma (NAOJ)Five key questions answered via the analysis of 25 hot Jupiter atmospheres in eclipse
3 5/10 15:00-Sho Shibata (University of Zurich)Exploring formation pathways of gas giant planets using planetesimal accretionTuesdayŲ
4 5/19 15:00-Kenji Furuya (NAOJ)Different degree of nitrogen and carbon depletion in protoplanetary disksŲ
5 6/2 15:00-Tatsuya Yoshida (Tohoku University)Hydrodynamic escape of reduced proto-atmospheres on Earth and Marsƣ
6 6/9 15:00-Tadahiro Kimura (University of Tokyo)ȾëǥΥӥ塼ʸۡ²ǥѤѡܸ
7 6/23 15:00-Tomohiro Yoshida (SOKENDAI/NAOJ)12CO/13CO Ratio in the TW Hya DiskŲ
8 7/5 15:00-Hidenori Genda (ELSI)Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) missionTuesday
9 7/14 15:00-Yuki Kanbara (University of Tokyo)ĬˤûAMDѤɾܸŲ
10 7/21 15:00-Daniel Koll (Peking University)The unusual climates of habitable sub-Neptunesƣ
11 7/28 15:00-Yasuhiro Hasegawa (JPL)Solid Accretion onto Neptune-Mass Planets: Constraints from the D/H ratio of Uranus and Neptune
1 10/14 13:00-Takuji Tsujimoto (NAOJ)Migration of the solar system and its impact on the climate in the EarthŲ
2 10/21 13:00-Hitoshi Miura (Nagoya City University)What if the asteroid Ryugu is of cometary origin?ƣ
3 11/4 13:00-Yuki Yoshida (University of Tokyo)Simulating dust monomer collision: expansion of JKR theoryȯɽŲ
4 11/10 16:00-Billy Edwards (CEA and UCL)The Pursuit of a Meticulous Chemical Survey of ExoplanetsThursdayƣ
5 11/18 13:00-Nicolas Kurtovic (MPIA)Planet formation across different stellar hosts, with ALMA
6 11/28 13:00-Timmy Delage (MPIA)The interplay of gas, dust, and magnetorotational instability evolution in protoplanetary disksŲ
7 12/2 13:00-Yukari Toyoda (Kobe Univeristy)Low-velocity impact experiments of porous ice ball simulating Saturns ring particle: Porosity dependence of restitution coefficients and the mechanism of inelastic collision
8 12/9 13:00-Kiyoaki Doi (SOKENDAI)Constraints on the dust size distribution in the protoplanetary disk around HD 163296 by ALMA multi-band observationsȯɽŲ
9 1/6 13:00-Mayuko Mori (University of Tokyo)Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems Around M-dwarfs and Their Stellar ActivitiesŲ
10 1/20 13:00-Sanemichi Takahashi (NAOJ)Planetesimal formation by the gravitational instability of dust ring structuresŲ
11 2/3 13:00-Chanoul Seo (SOKENDAI)Atmospheres of sub-Neptunes as a probe of magma oceanȯɽƣ
12 2/10 13:00-Edwin L. Turner (Princeton University)1I/`Oumuamua (1I/2017 U1): A Mysterious Visitor to the Solar SystemŲ
5/10 Sho Shibata (University of Zurich), Exploring formation pathways of gas giant planets using planetesimal accretion
The composition of gas giant planets is a useful tracer of planet formation. Recent observations of gas giant planets suggest that planetesimal accretion had occurred in their formation stage. In our previous studies, we found that large amount of planetesimals can be captured by a protoplanet when the protoplanet migrates into the region which we call as sweet spot for planetesimal accretion. In this talk, we will apply the theory of sweet spot to the formation of close-in gas giant planets and Jupiter and Saturn. We will discuss the formation history of those planets using the planetesimal accretion process.
6/2 Tatsuya Yoshida (Tohoku University), Hydrodynamic escape of reduced proto-atmospheres on Earth and Mars
Earth and Mars likely have obtained reduced proto-atmospheres enriched in H2 and CH4 through impact degassing from planetary building blocks and gravitational capture of the surrounding nebular gas during accretion. Such reduced proto-atmospheres are expected to have been lost by hydrodynamic escape, but their fluxes and timescale for hydrogen depletion remain highly uncertain due to the ambiguity in the radiative loss of energy and chemical processes in escaping outflows. Here we develop a one-dimensional hydrodynamic escape model which includes radiative and chemical processes for a multi-component atmosphere and applied to the reduced proto-atmospheres on Mars and Earth to estimate the atmospheric escape rates and propose possibly atmospheric evolutionary tracks that are consistent with the isotopic compositions and amounts of the surface volatiles. We find that the hydrodynamic escape is suppressed due to the energy loss by the radiative cooling both on Earth and Mars. The escape rate decreases more than one order of magnitude than that of the pure H2 atmosphere when the mixing ratio of CH4 is high. As a result, the duration of the reduced hydrogen-rich environment becomes longer, implying that the early atmospheres played important roles in producing organic matters linked to the emergence of living organisms. The suppression of the hydrodynamic escape by the radiative cooling is more significant on Earth due to the larger gravity and higher temperature in the escaping outflow. The difference in the hydrodynamic escape may have contributed to the difference in the amounts and isotopic compositions of the surface volatiles between Earth and Mars.
6/9 Tadahiro Kimura (University of Tokyo),ȾëǥΥӥ塼ʸۡ²ǥѤѡ
7/5 Hidenori Genda (ELSI), Martian Moons eXploration (MMX) mission
Mars has two small moons, Phobos and Deimos. Two leading hypotheses, "capture theory" and "giant impact theory," have been considered for their origin, but they have not been settled. JAXA plans the 3rd Japanese sample return mission called Martian Moon eXploration (MMX). MMX spacecraft explores the Martian moons and brings back regolith samples from Phobos to Earth in 2029. The sample analysis should reveal their origin, but why is the origin of tiny Martian moons so important? What grand story can we draw about the solar system from the samples of the tiny small moon? In this seminar, I will briefly introduce MMX mission, and explain why we chose tiny satellites orbiting Mars.
7/21 Daniel Koll (Peking University), The unusual climates of habitable sub-Neptunes
Sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets like K2-18b are one of the most common planets in our galaxy. These planets are highly promising targets to search nearby exoplanets for biosignatures, because some temperate sub-Neptunes could be hosting liquid H2O oceans underneath their H2 envelopes. The surface climates of H2-rich worlds remain poorly understood, however. In this talk I will first discuss the onset of the runaway greenhouse in a H2 atmosphere. Extending previous work by Nakajima, Ingersoll, and others on the runaway greenhouse, I will show how the unusual low mean-molecular-weight of H2 leads to a number of unique climate effects. Next, I will show that H2-rich atmospheres should also have unusually long sunsets, with atmospheric refraction and scattering extending the twilight zone far beyond that on Earth. Many questions still remain open about the climates of habitable sub-Neptunes, but better theoretical models combined with JWST observations should allow us to make rapid progress over the next couple of years.
7/28 Yasuhiro Hasegawa (JPL), Solid Accretion onto Neptune-Mass Planets: Constraints from the D/H ratio of Uranus and Neptune
The currently available, detailed properties (e.g., isotopic ratios) of solar system planets may provide guides for constructing better approaches of exoplanet characterization. With this motivation, we explore how the measured values of the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of Uranus and Neptune can constrain their formation mechanisms. Under the assumption of in-situ formation, we investigate three solid accretion modes; a dominant accretion mode switches from pebble accretion to drag-enhanced three-body accretion and to canonical planetesimal accretion, as the solid radius increases. We consider a wide radius range of solids that are accreted onto (proto)Neptune-mass planets and compute the resulting accretion rates as a function of both the solid size and the solid surface density. We find that for small-sized solids, the rate becomes high enough to halt concurrent gas accretion, if all the solids have the same size. For large-sized solids, the solid surface density needs to be enhanced to accrete enough amounts of solids within the gas disk lifetime. We apply these accretion modes to the formation of Uranus and Neptune and show that if the minimum-mass solar nebula model is adopted, solids with radius of ~ 1 m to ~ 10 km should have contributed mainly to their deuterium enrichment; a tighter constraint can be derived if the full solid size distribution is determined. This work therefore demonstrates that the D/H ratio can be used as a tracer of solid accretion onto Neptune-mass planets. Similar efforts can be made for other atomic elements that serve as metallicity indicators.
10/14 Takuji Tsujimoto (NAOJ), Migration of the solar system and its impact on the climate in the Earth
In this talk, I report the birthplace and the trajectory history of the solar system based on the comparison of an elemental abundance pattern of the Sun to those of solar twins together with the results of numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of disk stars in a Milky Way–like galaxy. These arguments are followed by the discussion on the potential influence on the climate in the Earth as the outcome of a long journey on the disk, which makes the solar system undergo several major encounters with spiral arms.
10/21 Hitoshi Miura (Nagoya City University), What if the asteroid Ryugu is of cometary origin?
Asteroid Ryugu is a C-type near-Earth asteroid. The Japanese Hayabusa2 mission has revealed that Ryugu has a spinning top-shaped rubble-pile structure and potentially high organic content. How did asteroids with these characteristics form? We focused on the hypothesis that Ryugu is an extinct comet and examined whether the features of Ryugu can be explained by theoretically modeling the sublimation process of volatile ice from the heated cometary nucleus. First, we assumed that the cometary nucleus is a porous spherical object (parent comet) composed mainly of water ice particles. The parent comet is assumed to contain cm-sized rocks uniformly. The initial water/rock mass ratio is assumed to be 3:1 according to the solar abundance. The initial radius of the parent comet is assumed to be 1.2 km and the initial porosity is 0.8. Assuming that the parent comet was uniformly heated to 200 K, we calculated the sublimation of the internal ice, the outflow of water vapor from the surface of the parent comet, and the accumulation of the remaining rocks (contraction of the parent comet) and the associated change in spin rate. The results indicate that the ice is almost completely lost in about tens of thousands of years. After the sublimation of the ice, the remaining rocks accumulate at the center of the parent comet gravitationally, and eventually become a rocky object with a radius of about 440 m (a rubble pile asteroid). Calculations of the changes in angular momentum and moment of inertia of the parent comet during its contraction process show that the spin rate is amplified to about four times the initial rate. If the initial rotation period of the parent comet was about the same as that of a typical cometary nucleus (about 12 hr), the rotation period of the remaining asteroid after ice loss would be reduced to about 3 hr. This is shorter than the rotation period (about 3.5 hr) required for Ryugu to become spinning top-shape due to deformation caused by high-speed rotation. This result suggests that the spinning top-shape can be formed spontaneously during the sublimation of ice from the parent comet. Our results indicate that the cometary origin of Ryugu can naturally explain the physical features observed in Ryugu. In the near future, the origin of Ryugu will be revealed based on the results of the detailed analysis of Ryugu samples.
11/10 Billy Edward (CEA/UCL), The Pursuit of a Meticulous Chemical Survey of Exoplanets
Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of bulk parameters. However, the essential nature of these planets remains largely mysterious. We have poor observational insights into how the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or how the host star drives the processes controlling the planet's birth and evolution. Current facilities have begun the reconnaissance of exoplanetary atmospheres. HST has been utilised to conduct observations of tens of worlds. These data have allowed for the first population studies of exoplanet atmospheres to be undertaken. HST WFC3 G141, which provides sensitivity to water in these atmospheres, has been central to these efforts and has characterised planets in both transmission and emission. I will discuss the latest outcomes of homogenous population studies with HST WFC3, highlighting the key results and findings in the search for chemical. Furthermore, the limitations of current approaches will be presented, including data quality, the potential biases in the current analysis methods, and lack of rigorous population-level target selection. In the next few years, the quality and quantity of space-based data will drastically increase thanks to JWST, Twinkle and Ariel. These new facilities will probe the atmospheres of hundreds of planets in unprecedented detail, triggering a substantial shift in our understanding of planetary science. However, to maximise the science yield of these missions we must learn lessons from the currently available datasets. I will discuss how we can use the results and, at times, failings of these previous endeavours to develop clear strategies for target selection. Additionally, I will present projects which seek to understand the key capabilities and niches of these observatories, to help develop strategies to exploit the synergies and complementarities between different facilities in an attempt to construct a meticulous chemical survey of exoplanet atmospheres.
11/18 Nicolas Kurtovic (MPIA), Planet formation across different stellar hosts, with ALMA
Planet formation seems to be a ubiquitous process in young stellar objects. However, the conditions for planet formation vary depending on the stellar and disk properties. To understand the potential for planet formation of different stellar environments, we studied ALMA high angular resolution observations of a wide range of hosts, such as very low mass stars, circumbinary and binary systems. In this talk, I will show how the detailed modeling of fine emission structure is critical to understand planet formation.
11/28 Timmy Delage (MPIA), The interplay of gas, dust, and magnetorotational instability evolution in protoplanetary disks
An unsolved puzzle in the current planet formation theory is how the dust grow from interstellar micron-sized grains to kilometer-sized planetesimals in protoplanetary disks, the birth environment of planets. Though, it is a crucial step for understanding the emergence of newborn planets. The focus of my research is to bridge this gap by investigating how the evolution of gas, dust with growth processes included, and magnetorotational instability (MRI) interlink over million years in PPDs -where the MRI is one of the main candidates for the mass and angular momentum transport. The outer edge of the magnetically dead zone (regions where the MRI cannot operate) has been previously hypothesized to be a sweet spot for dust particles to coagulate into larger sizes, hence potentially forming planetesimals. To assess this idea, and explore this interplay in a robust and unique approach, I will present the very first unified 1D disk evolution framework that combines self-consistently these key processes. This work sheds light on a new pathway to generate observable spontaneous dust rings within the magnetically dead zone. Planetesimals may form in these dust rings under certain conditions, hence being potential birth-sites for planets.
12/2 Yukari Toyoda (Kobe University), Low-velocity impact experiments of porous ice ball simulating Saturns ring particle: Porosity dependence of restitution coefficients and the mechanism of inelastic collision
Saturn's rings are classified into two groups: They are dense main rings consisting of A, B and C ring and tenuous rings consisting of D, E, F and G ring. One of the key physical processes that maintain the main rings is the energy dissipative collisions among ring particles. We focus on the main rings and study the dynamics of the collisions among ring particles experimentally. The ring particles are composed of water ice particles with the diameter of several cm to tens of meters. Although the ring particles are predicted to be highly porous ice particles such as ice aggregates by Cassini's observations, previous laboratory experiments were conducted for mainly non-porous or frosted ice particle; the restitution coefficients of the ice aggregate have not been studied systematically. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the collisional behavior of the ice aggregates. The purpose of this study is to clarify the velocity dependence of restitution coefficients of porous ice balls and to study the porosity dependence of the restitution coefficient, we then try to estimate the internal structure of ring particles suitable for the Saturns main rings. Therefore, low-velocity impact experiments from 0.88~96.9 cm/s were performed between a porous ice ball with the porosity of 47, 53, 60% and three types of target plates; a granite plate, an ice plate and a porous ice plate.
1/6 Mayuko Mori (University of Tokyo), Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems Around M-dwarfs and Their Stellar Activities
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2/3 Chanoul Seo (SOKENDAI), Atmospheres of sub-Neptunes as a probe of magma ocean
Abstract: Sub-Neptune is one of the common types of exoplanets with a few earth radii (Planetary radius = 1.6~3.2 Earth radius). There is a degeneracy in the bulk composition of sub-Neptune, the mass and radius can be explained by the relatively thick atmospheres with silicate core or water-dominated composition. In the former case, the atmosphere can keep a high surface temperature implying a large magma ocean. The atmospheric characterization can provide an effective tool to solve this degeneracy because their atmospheres are likely to be affected by the reaction with the underlying magma if magma exists (e.g., Kite et al. 2020). Thus, we study the atmospheric composition of sub-Neptunes in the presence of magma ocean using an equilibrium model taking account of chemical reaction and solubility of volatiles into the magma, similar to Kite et al. 2020. However, we include not only H and O but also other volatiles (such as C) that are relevant to the transmission spectra. As shown in the previous study, the nebula-origin atmospheres can be highly oxidized to form H2O-dominated atmospheres when the accreted amount of volatile is moderate. We find the relationship between two observable atmospheric parameters, H2O fraction and atmospheric C/H ratio, and the initial magma redox state and composition of accreted volatiles (nebula gas and pure ice). The high solubility of H2O into magma and the small solubility of C-bearing species enrich C-bearing species in the atmosphere, which could be used as an indicator of the presence of magma-atmospheric reaction. Future transmission observations are expected to allow us to distinguish the different scenarios of the interior of sub-Neptune.
2/10 Edwin L. Turner (Princeton University), 1I/`Oumuamua (1I/2017 U1): A Mysterious Visitor to the Solar System
Abstract: The observed properties of the first detected small body from interstellar space passing through the Solar System will be summarized, and the great difficulties in explaining them wil be discussed critically. `Oumuamua's physical nature remains a deep mystery with no immediate prospects of being resolved.