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Planet のバックアップ差分(No.57)


  • 追加された行はこの色です。
  • 削除された行はこの色です。
#norelated
* 惑星セミナー2018 [#zbb5ecca]

惑星セミナーは原則として毎週木曜日の14:00から理論部セミナー室で開催しています。~
astro-phセミナーは毎週金曜日の12:30から理論部セミナー室で開催しています。

// セミナー発表順番
// 

** Schedule & History [#vfafd1d8]

[[2017年度>Planet2017]]
[[2016年度>Planet2016]]
[[2015年度>Planet2015]]
[[2014年度>Planet2014]]

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|日程|発表|タイトル|Remarks|h
|BGCOLOR(#ccf):|BGCOLOR(#ffc):|BGCOLOR(#ffc):|BGCOLOR(#fcf):|c
//|BGCOLOR(#ddf):|BGCOLOR(#ffd):|BGCOLOR(#ffd):|c
|[[前期 第1回 5/17 15:00->#planet0517]]|荻原 正博| Formation of the terrestrial planets in the solar system around 1 au via radial concentration of planetesimals|15:00|
|[[前期 第2回 5/24 15:00->#planet0524]]|波々伯部 広隆 | Determination of outer edge of circumplanetary disk in local 3d hydrodynamic simulations |15:00|
|[[前期 第3回 5/30 14:00->#planet0530]]|Dimitri Veras | The growing field of post-main-sequence exoplanetary science, with strong connections to the solar system|Wednesday@Rinko room|
|[[前期 第4回 6/14 14:00->#planet0614]]|細野 七月 | Numerical simulations of the giant impact onto the magma ocean||
|[[前期 第5回 6/28 14:00->#planet0628]]|兵頭 龍樹 | On the origin of Phobos and Deimos||
|[[前期 第6回 7/12 14:00->#planet0712]]|樋口 有理可 | Inner solar system objects with hyperbolic orbits: Interstellar origin or Oort cloud comets?||
|[[前期 第7回 7/19 14:00->#planet0719]]|中野 龍之介 | 中心星質量による原始惑星系円盤進化の変化||
|[[前期 第8回 7/26 14:00->#planet0726]]|中嶋 彩乃 | Orbital evolution of Saturn's mid-sized moons and the tidal heating of Enceladus||
|[[後期 第1回 9/19 14:00->#planet0919]]|波々伯部 広隆 | 論文紹介 (Tanigawa et al. 2012, ApJ, Distribution of Accreting Gas and Angular Momentum onto Circumplanetary Disks)||
|[[後期 第2回 10/3 14:00->#planet1003]]|小久保 英一郎 | Planetesimal Formation by Gravitational Instability of a Porous Dust Disk||
|[[後期 第3回 10/24 14:00->#planet1024]]|瀧 哲朗 | Chondrule Survivability in the Protosolar disk ||
|[[後期 第4回 10/31 13:00->#planet1031]]|Jason Man Yin Woo | The curious case of Mars' formation |13:00|
|[[後期 第5回 11/7 14:00->#planet1107]]|松本侑士 |The formation and dynamical evolution of super-Earths through in-situ giant impacts around M dwarfs ||
|[[後期 第6回 11/14 15:00->#planet1114]]|Adrien Leleu |Stability and detectability of co-orbital exoplanets |15:00- 院生セミナー室|
|[[後期 第7回 11/21 13:00->#planet1121]]|藤井悠里 |On the radiation hydrodynamic simulations of formation of circumplanetary disks ||
|[[後期 第8回 11/29 14:00->#planet1129]]|長谷川幸彦 |Reconsideration of Formation Process of Rocky Planetesimals |Thursday|
|[[後期 第9回 12/19 14:00->#planet1219]]|柴田翔 |Metallicity Enhancement of Gas Giants by Late Accretion of Solids - the Effect of Orbital Evolution ||
|[[後期 第10回 1/9 10:00->#planet0109]]|小林浩 |N body simulation with collisional fragmentation for planet formation in giant impact stages ||
|[[後期 第11回 1/23 14:00->#planet0123]]|川島由依 |Theoretical transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres with hydrocarbon haze: Exploration of metallicity-dependence and application to extremely low-density planet Kepler-51b ||

//今後の候補
//内部:小久保、押野、荻原、波々伯部、Carol、星野
//原川さん、森島さん、森さん(東工大)、芝池さん(東工大)
//小林さん(名大)、佐々木さん(京大)←理論コロキウム?
//高橋実道さん,長谷川幸彦さん

// ←ダブルスラッシュはコメントアウト
:&aname(planet0530){5/30}; Dimitri Veras, The growing field of post-main-sequence exoplanetary science, with strong connections to the solar system|
The quest for identifying the bulk chemical composition of extrasolar
planets and robust observational evidence that between 25% and 50% of
all Milky Way white dwarfs host currently dynamically-active planetary
systems motivate investigations that link their formation and fate.
Here I provide a review of our current knowledge of these systems,
including an update on the observational and theoretical aspects of
the groundbreaking discovery of at least one disintegrating minor
planet transiting white dwarf WD 1145+017. I show how this field
incorporates several facets of solar system physics and chemistry, and
how its interdisciplinary nature requires input from orbital dynamics,
stellar evolution, astrochemistry, atmospheric science and surface
processes.

//アブスト
:&aname(planet1031){10/31}; Jason Woo, The curious case of Mars' formation|
Dynamical models of planet formation coupled with cosmochemical data from martian meteorites show that Mars'
isotopic composition is distinct from that of Earth. Reconciliation of formation models with meteorite data require that
Mars grew further from the Sun than its present position. Here, we evaluate this compositional difference in more detail
by comparing output from two N-body planet formation models. The first of these planet formation models simulates
what is termed the `Classical' case wherein Jupiter and Saturn are kept in their current orbits. We compare these
results with another model based on the `Grand Tack', in which Jupiter and Saturn migrate through the primordial
asteroid belt. Our estimate of the average fraction of chondrite assembled into Earth and Mars assumes that the initial
solid disk consists of only sources of enstatite chondrite composition in the inner region, and ordinary chondrite in the
outer region. Results of these analyses show that both models tend to yield Earth and Mars analogues whose accretion
zones overlap. The Classical case fares better in forming Mars with its documented composition (29% to 68% enstatite
chondrite plus 32% to 67% ordinary chondrite) though the Mars analogues are generally too massive. We also further
calculate the isotopic composition of 17O, 50Ti, 54Cr, 142Nd, 64Ni, and 92Mo in the martian mantle from the Grand
Tack simulations. We find that it is possible to match the calculated isotopic composition of all the above elements in
Mars' mantle with their measured values, but the resulting uncertainties are too large to place good restriction on the
early dynamical evolution and birth place of Mars.
:&aname(planet1107){11/7}; Yuji Matsumoto The formation and dynamical evolution of super-Earths through in-situ giant impacts around M dwarfs|
Recently, Earth-sized exoplanets are observed around TRAPPIST-1, which is M8 dwarf and has ~0.08 solar mass. Several on-going missions are targeting planets around M dwarfs. It is expected that more and more such planetary system around M dwarfs would be observed. There are some theoretical studies considering planetary formation around M dwarfs. However, the formation and dynamical evolution of close-in super-Earths have not understood systematically yet. We investigate the formation of close-in super-Earths through N-body simulations around M dwarfs. We use the same disk model with changing the stellar mass. At first, the dynamical evolution of isolation mass protoplanets is studied. As Matsumoto & Kokubo (2017) reported, protoplanets collide with their neighboring protoplanets soon after the orbital crossing around 1 solar mass star. Around M dwarfs, dynamical scattering between protoplanets becomes violent and such tournament-like collisional evolution is not seen. We also perform calculations with the systems that initially have protoplanets and planetesimals around M dwarfs. We find that planetesimals are ejected during some close scattering by protoplanets. The growth of protoplanets would be suppressed due to the ejection of planetesimals.
:&aname(planet1114){11/14}; Adrien Leleu/ Stability and detectability of co-orbital exoplanets|
Despite the existence of co-orbital bodies in the solar system (1:1 Mean-motion resonance), and the prediction of the formation of co-orbital planets by planetary system formation models, no co-orbital exoplanets (also called trojans) have been detected thus far. It can be due to the rarity of the configuration, the degeneracy of the co-orbital signature with other configurations, or the observational biases. After a description of various stable co-orbital configurations for a pair of planet, I will discuss the stability of the lagrangian equilibria (L4 and L5) during the migration in the protoplanetary disc for the variables associated to the resonant angle, but also in the direction of the eccentricities and inclination. Finally I will discuss the signature of co-orbitals exoplanets in Transit Timing Variation, transits, and combination of transit and radial velocity measurements.

:&aname(planet1219){12/19}; Sho Shibata/ Metallicity Enhancement of Gas Giants by Late Accretion of Solids - the Effect of Orbital Evolution|
Recent studies of internal structure of gas giants suggest that their envelope is enriched with heavier elements than hydrogen and helium, relative to their central star composition. It is considered that these enrichment in heavy elements are caused by the capture of planetesimals during the late formation stage of gas giants. Zhou & Lin 2007 and Shiraishi & Ida 2008 performed orbital integrations of planetesimals around a growing protoplanet in a constant protoplanetary disk, and estimated the total captured mass of planetesimals for Jupiter and Saturn.  However, they assumed a simple formation models and neglected some physically important effects.
In this study, we investigated the effect of a planet migration on the capture of planetesimals, in a single-planetary system and a multi-planetary system, respectively. We find that planetesimals swept by a migrating planet are trapped at the mean-motion resonances (MMRs), which works as a barrier and prevents planetesimals from approaching the planet. Thus, planetary migration itself has little contribution to increasing the amount of captured planetesimals. However, in a multi-planetary system, we find an interesting process that breaks the resonance trap and increases the amount of planetesimals captured by the planets. This effect is important to consider the capture of planetesimals in a multi-planetary system.

:&aname(planet0123){1/23}; Yui Kawashima/ Theoretical transmission spectra of exoplanet atmospheres with hydrocarbon haze: Exploration of metallicity-dependence and application to extremely low-density planet Kepler-51b|
Recently, properties of exoplanet atmospheres have been constrained via multi-wavelength transit observation, which measures an apparent decrease in stellar brightness during planetary transit in front of its host star (called transit depth). Sets of transit depths so far measured at different wavelengths (called transmission spectra) for some exoplanets are featureless or flat, inferring the existence of haze particles in the atmospheres. Previous studies that addressed theoretical modeling of transmission spectra of hydrogen-dominated atmospheres with haze used some assumed distribution and size of haze particles. In Kawashima & Ikoma (2018), we developed new photochemical and microphysical models of the creation, growth, and settling of haze particles for deriving their size and number-density distributions in hydrogen-dominated atmospheres of close-in warm (< 1000 K) exoplanets. In this talk, using our developed models, we explore the metallicity-dependence of the production rate of haze and the resultant transmission spectra, and discuss implications for observations. Also, we apply our models to recently-observed extremely low-density planet Kepler-51b. We have found that for an extremely low-gravity planet such as Kepler-51b, haze particles grow significantly large in the upper atmosphere due to the small sedimentation velocity, resulting in the featureless or flat transmission spectrum in a wide wavelength range as observationally detected.

//:&aname(planet1107){5/21}; 名前 タイトル|
//アブスト